Higher Education in America- By Dr. Dilip Oak Director of Oak's Academy Pune
Competitive Exams- Shri. Avinash Dharmadhikari, President, Chanakya Mandal, Pune
Yoga for Excellence in life- By Dr. Samprasad Vinod,M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc.
Management Challenges in the next millenium- Dr. V. H. Inamdar Director, I.M.C.C., Pune
MBA Desirable but not essential- Mr. Prakash Bang,
Chief Executive Quiksel Communications, Pune
Youth & Environment : Ms.Sadhana Shroff, Vanarai
Management Education Movement : Dr. P.C. Shejwalkar, Professor Emeritus, Commerce & Management, Dean, Faculty of Management, University of Pune
   
  
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  Higher Education in America : By Dr. Dilip Oak,
  Director of Oak's Academy Pune
 

Many students dream of getting higher education in the United States. American Universities offer excellent educational facilities in almost all fields. Students are allowed to select subjects they find interesting and to design the syllabus they require. Most universities have excellent faculities which include faculty of international repute. Most importantly, the majority of American universities offer substantial or sometimes even full financial assistance to students pursuing post gradute studies in all fields.

There is a common misconception that financial assistance is available to only engineering students. But this is not true. Even students from fields such as Commerce, Arts, Science, Medicine, Psychology, Economics, Pharmacy, Fina Arts, etc. also get substantial financial assistance. So even students from middle-class backgrounds can easily afford an American education. Since 1996 there has been a great need for trained professionals in the field of Computer Science. It has therefore become very easy for students from any faculty including Commerce and Arts to seek admissions for MS programs in Computer Science in all American Universities. These students will be at per with students from an Engineering background after they complete their course in American Universities (which will take 16 to 24 months) and will get an excellent jobs in American software companies.

But to get admission in an American University students have to fulfill following requirements :

1. They must complete 16 years of education in India. Therefore students from Engineering, Medicine, Pharmacy and Architecture fields can directly take admission once they complete thier Bachelors Degree. But Students from Commerce, Arts and Science fields must complete their Masters Degree (at least one year of the Masters Degree is required) before they take admission in American Universities.

2. They must pass the GRE & TOEFL examinations (for admission in all fileds except Management) and GMAT & TOEFL for admission in Management field.

3. They have to follow alengthy application process which should be started at least one year before the admission is taken.

The examinations are necessary since students apply for admission to American universities from a large number of other institutions in the United States, as well as from the thousands of schools and colleges from all over the world.

Obviously, it is impossible for admission authorities to have reliable and comparable information about the relative ment of the certificates have therefore devised a system of entrance tests for admission to their courses which every prospective candidate (whether American or foreign) has to take.

These examinations (GRE, GMAT, SAT, TOEFL, etc.) are conducted by Educational Testing Service (ETS), Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.A.

A Valid Indian passport is required to appear for all the tests mentioned above. A passport is the only identification acceptable for these examinations. Driving licenses or college indentity cards or ration cards are not acceptable.

Universities in America have three semesters namely Fall (September to December), Spring (January to April) and Summer (May to July). A majority of students join for the Fall Semester since the financial assistance is easily possible in this semester.

The application process involves following steps :

1) Sending request to American Univesities for their prospectuses anb brochures. Generally prospectus are received within two months.

2) Shortlisting about 8 to 10 universities which you will actually apply to. This depends on your GRE/GMAT/TOEFL score, academic background, work experience finacial capacity, etc.

3) Sending the application packet to American universities at least 8 months in advance e.g. for Fall (September) semester applications must be mailed in the month of January. Along with the applications you must send marklists, recommendation letters from professors, a statement of purpose, the application fee, etc.

Usually admissions for Fall (September) are confirmed by April to May. Students should decide on one of them and apply for a student visa in June or July. Since 1996 the U.S. Goverment has become liberal in granting visas to students going to the states for higher education so getting a visa will generally not be a problem.

You can complete MS and MA courses in American in four semesters i.e. 2 years. But since the educational system in America is flexible students can study additional subjects in every semester and can therefore finish their courses in as little as 16 months. Most Students get full financial support from their universities while they are pursuing their MS or M. A. courses. Financial support can be in the form of tution waivers, teaching assistantships, research assistantships etc. Students are also allowed to work on campus for 20 hours per week. They can thereby earn around 400 U.S. dollars per month which is enough to pay for living expenses.

Almost every one of the 1000 or so students who have gone from our academy to U.S. universities got financial support right in the first semester. Hence none of them spent more than U.S. $5000 (Rs. 2.5 lakhs) for their education. If your GRE score is high and if your academic performance is good, you can get assurance of full financial support beofore you join your university. Finacial assistance is availabe for MS in all subjects -- engineering, humanities, pharmacy, computer science, biological science, economics etc.

Once students complete thier MS or M.B.A. degrees they can get jobs in Amercian companies and will also get work-permits (H1 visa) for 3 years which are renewable for one terms of 3 years. In the mean while they can also apply for their green cards (permission for permanent residence) and live in American permanently.

Thus this is the golden opportunity for all Indian students to get an excellent education in America, make a good career there and attain a standard of living there that is unachievable here except for the very rich.


  
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  Competitive Exams : Shri Avinash Dharmadhikari,
  President, Chanakya Mandal, Pune
 

Where do we stand in all-India competitive exams

We are 'seminars and symposia-loving' creatures. Like religious and other festivals, observance seasons, auspicious moments, we also have seasons ana auspicious moments of debates and seminars. We might even that the perennial and heated debates and discussions as a festival in itself. Aren't we found of festivals too?

The point is - I am going to write on a subject close to many people's heart and so I have to prepare the ground in such a long-winded way. The subject is : Why do Marathi youth fare poorly in competitive and particularly IAS, exams? With this Why, we may also include How, Since when, and where. And with it can't we have some related 'gupshup?' Has Marathi youth really been left behind? How to define 'left behind?' Should we study the issue from the Marathi angle, which whii be a regional angle? I am raising such rational questions to add colour to the discussion.

A good thing about many of these 'festivals' is that they get over on the specified day in autumn or winter. Some have no such 'muhurt' or season. For example, 'How to change the form of Ganeshotsav and restore it.. "

..visit this page again for more comming soon.


  
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  Yoga for Excellence in life : By Dr. Samprasad Vinod, M.D., Ph.D., D.Sc.
 

After effects of Industrialization :

The whole world is now getting ready to enter into the 21st Century. The twentieth century has seen a phenomenal change in every sphere of human activity. We have witnessed the aftermath of two world wars during this century. The dreadful consequences of atomic explosion were also seen in Nagasaki & Hiroshima during this century.

The process of industrialization gathered unbelievable momentum during this century. Willingly or unwillingly countries all over the world, got involved in the race of industrialization. Industrialization triggered production, increased production resulted into consumerism & consumerism led to materialism. Materialism led to self-centredness & self centerdness caused severe disturbances in human relationship.

Industrialization in its wake, has brought its sweet as well as bitter fruits. In certain ways, life has become better than before & in certain ways worse. Better, because of the availability of gadgets of comfort in plenty. High-tech cars, supersonic jets, high speed telecommunication networks, television channels, air conditions and so on & on.

The darker side of industrialization lies in its harmful effects on the individual, family & society.

Coping with Increasing Speed and Change :

Along with the first ever atomic explosion, we have also experienced what is known as 'explosion of knowledge & information' in the present century, particularly during the last couple of decades or so.

Most of the problems from the 19th century are due to increasing speed of life & increasing speed of change. As a result of these factors, we are subjected to lot of stress, during the present century. Coping with the ever increasing speed of change, has been a major cause of concern and real challenge before humanity, today. Due to the dearth of time, 'human touch' is fast disappearing from our life. Modern living has become extremely mechanical & artificial. In the presence of material prosperity, human being is getting more & more impoverished spirituality.

Coping with the increasing speed & change has taken its toll on human health and well being. In recent times, although the incidence of physical ailments like infective disorders and communicable diseases has been substantially reduced, the incidence of psychological, emotional, psychosomatic & behavioural problems has kept on increasing at the same time. Incidence of stress induced disorders like High Blood Pressure, Diabetics Mellitus, Myocardial Infraction, Anxiety-Neurosis, Acid-Peptic Disease, Depression, Insomnia, is on the rise.

Yoga... 'Beyond' Physical :

The Ancient Indian Wisdom of Yoga helps us in developing these abilities. It is not possible to develop these qualities, unless one pays enough attention to the more subtle spiritual dimensions of Yoga, along with the physical practice of Asanas and Pranayam.

By spiritual, I do not mean getting identified with some cult or some dogma or doing religious rites or rituals or running after an abstract concept of emancipation after death from the birth and death cycle. By spiritual, I only mean being happy with oneself and within oneself. Keeping one's cool under all circumstances and being able to discharge our worldly duties well, being positive in one's approach toward life, being humble for being receptive to new vistas of learning, being willing to readily accept our mistakes and learn from them, being focussed on what we really love to and are capable of doing. It also means being quietly confident, rather than being aggressively arrogant.

All this is possible, only if we are able to look 'beyond physical' aspects of Yoga. By 'beyond physical', I do not mean being involved in its 'esoteric' aspects, but being more thoughtful and subtle in one's approach towards Yoga. It means looking at physical, only as a means to an end and not an end in itself. Physical health and well being is certainly a very useful tool in the pursuit of excellence, but it is not enough. For being successful in this pursuit, what one needs most, is a perpetual inner strength and poise, which can be most effectively attained with the help of 'Yoga-Sadhana'.

Yoga - Sadhana :

During Yoga-Sadhana, one is expected to first of all learn how to get into a state of meditation & remain there for some time. After having developed this skill, one has to learn to incorporate meditation into different Yogic Practices like Asanas & Pranayam. After developing proficiency in performing Yogic Practices in a state of meditation, it gets automatically permeated into one's being. Consequently, the effects of meditative way of living start manifesting through all our day to day activities. After having mastered the art of meditative living, one grows into a state of true inner noise and equilibrium.

In the 21st century, inner calm is going to be the most crucial factor in one's growth, success and well being.

Young persons, who are in search of Excellence, should always remember, that in the days to come, success will be measured in terms of true balance between material and spiritual growth. Mere material or mere spiritual growth is not going to be sufficient for meeting the challenges of coming times. Dynamic balance between the two is the real key.

Those who possess this master key, will be able to maintain proper equilibrium between material and spiritual wealth. Right from the beginning of one's career, one should try to strike a golden mean between these two fundamental dimensions of life.

The youth of today, should do all that is within their capacity, to acquire this skill and be successful in life.


  
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  Management Challenges in the next millenium :
  Dr. V. H. Inamdar, Director, I.M.C.C., Pune
 

Management Guru Prof. Peter Drucker once said, "There are no "poor nations" & "rich nations". There are "bad managed nations" & well managed nations".

Currently, the world-over, different experiments have been going on in the economic & political field.
Dr. John D. Sullivan, the Director of Centre for International Private Enterprise' has divided these into four categories.

1. Liberal Policy 2. Free Economy 3. Privatisation 4. Lack of controls & incentives (also)

Newly - rich countries such as South Korea, Singapore, Chilee fall in the first category. After becoming rich, demand for economic & political freedom gathered momentum in these countries. Countries in Latin America & some part of Africa fall in the second category. Due to failure of Military power or dictatorship, economies collapse over here and that is how people wanted democracy & freedom. Countries in Central Europe & East Europe which fall into the third category were the victims of a typical situation. It was the end result of many factors such as collapsed of economy, failure of central power, nonacceptance of foreign philosopy at the same time an ongoing desire of the people to become free.

In the fourth category, however, countries which experienced socialism for many years ( i.e. member nations of the erstwhile U.S.S.R.) must be incorporated as their problems & prospects are different than those of the countries in the third category.

However one 'Central theme' emerges out of all the above four categories i.e Countries across each & every category have got attracted towards free-economy. They want industrial & economic development. They do not want to rely upon their own Governments in achieving progress. They want lesser & lesser Govt. controls and more & more opportunities in attaining freedom & progress.

Dr. John D. Sullivan has remarked, "The battle of imaginations of the 20th Century is now over. In the 21st Century, democratic values will be cherished, social & political organisations will take path of economic development, expenditure on education will increase while that on military will be reduced. International Co-operation will increase and managers (they may be from any country) will have to re-structure their organisations keeping Quality & Efficiency on the top agenda."

American, British, German & Japanese styles of Management will take the path of Co-operation, efficiency, accuracy, progress & development.

Indian Managers will have to get rid of old habits and styles such as autocratic, tally organisation structure and finding pride in how to skillfully delay the decision-making process. Instead, Indian Managers will have to imbibe new habits & styles such as efficiency, team-work, de-centralisation, flat organisation structure and taking fast & accurate decision. This can lead to survival & growth in a free market economy.

Otherwise, "poor Indians" will become more poor & money will flow from "honest-rich" Indians towards "dis-honest rich" Indians. And we will be the "static-spectators" of this event in 21st Century!

Some of the salient features and challenges for the management in the next millenium would be as under :-

1) The Changing Management Scene
The economic, environmental, technological & market factors are changing fast. In fact, these factors now affect all aspects of an organisation from marketing and production to accounting, personal & corporate strategy. The companies are now decentralised and thus there is even greater need for co-ordination.

2) Management of Information
To manage future well is to manage information. The major challenge is to improve quality of information.

3) Tall structure to flat structure
Even very large organisations do not need to be hierarchical but can have open flexible style with communication flowing between divisions rather than through Head Office.

4) Changing Leadership
Transformational Leadership style will emerge which will involve people and they will be encouraged to take initiatives & take their own decisions.

5) Development of social skills
In the next millenium, people must interact & help create a conducive climate within the organisation.

6) Changing labour market
We need to change our un-skilled labour into semi-skilled labour and further that into fully skilled labour. This can help create tremendous productive power of our untapped human resourse.

7) Developing Corporate Culture
The future management development effort should surely take into account the positive aspects of creating corporate culture. Basic values & underlying assumptions of big Indian organisations need to be clearly spelt out by the founders and re-inforced from top to bottom.

8) Organisational Effectiveness
Organisational effectiveness & competitiveness must be maintained and upgraded from time to through training & development, resolving conflicts, forming work teams, quality circles, absorption of technology & rewarding human effort. The biggest challenge for Indian management in the 21st Century will be "thriving on constant change & chaos".


  
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  MBA Desirable but not essential : Mr. Prakash Bang,
  Chief Executive, Quiksel Communications, Pune
 

The title should come as a surprise to many. More so because the guy writing it is a MBA himself.

While talking of careers in marketing, I am sure this platform will be giving the reader very valuable information. I have chosen to write on the title because of the fact that many are looking at becoming MBAs to pursue their careers in Marketing.

Of late, the breeds marked MBA's have become a prized lot. The question is are they?

Some. Not all of them. And that holds true for any other post graduation course as well. Just becasue one has a MBA attached to his name, doesn't make him invincible. Believe me, they are as vulnerable and as ignorant, if I may say so, their non-MBA colleagues.

Earlier there were only a few institutes that offered this course. I remember, when I was also one of the MBA aspirants in 1977 there were only 2 institutes. Now I am told there are many in and around Pune. In the seventies it was really difficult getting into one of these courses. So those who got in, were looked up in awe. They commanded a premium in the job markets. Employers believed they had the magic wand.

Down the years, the awe continued and fulfill this growing demand institutes offering the course mushroomed. A time has now come that anyone who wants to be an MBA can become one easily.
If not from IMDR, sure from somewhere else and at times from unheard of institutes from unheard of places!

The problem statrts now. Every MBA, no matter from institute he is from, begins to think he is God's gift to mankind. This is evident from the numerous interviews that I conduct with them. I get to hear some wonderful cliches. 'We work smarter - not harder' is the all time favourite. I would rather bet on a horse that is just a graduate, is willing to work hard with sincerity, is open to ideas and has no qualms about the hierarchy. They are better known as streetsmart guys.

Since I related with Marketing, you may find my thoughts baised towards this discipline of business. I may please be forgive.

Just to divert a wee bit, I see wonderful opportunities in rural marketing on one end and marketing with the help of the Internet on the other. Both the fields are apt for India. If one can learn the tricks early, I am sure a fortune could be made!

How many MBAs today who are keen into making careers in marketing are willing to start off as door to door salesmen? How many of them would go in for rural marketing where potential remain untapped? How many of them would travel in the state transport buses? How many of them would spend their evenings at counters selling wares and understanding, first hand the consumer behaviour? Those few says yes are ones the world is looking for. MBAs desirable. But not essential.

I have nothing against MBAs. I am one. And I take pride in creating a few every year through the institutes where I teach as guest faculty. MBA courses do put on the blinkers and makes one more focussed. It shows you the path, but it cannot take you along holding your hand all the way through. You have to find your own. More so now because the competition is at its peak.

Stallions are in demand. Not the asses. Consider the lines above only as a warning. Just in case temptation sets in.

The author is presently the Chief Executive of Quiksel Communications, a Pune based advertising agency. Prakash Bang ranks amongst the pioneers of data-base marketing and direct marketing in the country. His concept of branding and door - delivering Alphonso mangoes all over the world has caught fancy of many marketing pundits. He is on the faculty of many management institutes and a speaker at advertising & marketing seminars. A graduate in Physics, he passed our from IMDR, Pune in 1979.


  
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  Youth & Environment : Ms.Sadhana Shroff, Vanarai
 

India is completing 53 years of independence. But the question still remains in the minds of young people all across the country - are we really free? What is freedom? I think unless and until we are capable of making a free will; the concept of freedom is an illusion.

While entering the 21st century, we are searching for solutions to problems of rising population, unemployment, degradation of our natural resources, unproductive lands and minds, lack of economic resources, social injustice, impractical education, inadequate health facilities and so on. In this land of different cultures, religions, classes, many young hearts are at unrest. Almost 60% of the population is trying to decide what is good for the other people. Our impractical traditions, forces of corruption, superstitions, dowry system and false symbols of social status and our visionless leaders have put chains in the feet of our young people and have polluted their minds. Today's youth is swimming with the current, helplessly and hopelessly. They have conveniently forgotten the real 'power of youth' proved all are the places in the world where the youth made it possible for others to see the rays of hope, freedom and justice, 'Youth' is a power; it can make a future of break it.

India is a country with lots of natural resources and lots of people (over 100 crores) and lots of cattle wealth (nearly 50% if our population). Our country is recongised by the World Bank as the 'Country of Poors (34 crore) and illiterates (45%). Though we have been able to bring about green revolution, blue revolution, white revolution in our country, the fact remains that our 70% of population is in 6,70,000 villages. Some of those villagers do not even have the basic facilities of pure drinking water, electricity, health support, education, income-generating schemes. If we do not conserve our local natural resources and make them productive, we cannot really achieve any progress. Urbanisation has created has created more problems and pressures on the existing population in such centers. Today, in the democracy, human heads are counted but their minds are not read and we need to change this situation - together.

Being the major force in the society, the youth has more challenges to accept and responsibilities to perform. They can be environmentalist, agronomist, educationist, scientist but we have to proceed with cooperation from all sectors of society. Isolated progress will not benefit all.

We need the young minds, which are well focused on their goals and who are at times ready to rebel, revolt, sacrifice. If we need to change our society, we have to work as a positive force to eliminate the evils such as corruption, ignorance, poverty, illiteracy, unproductively etc.

If we create new atmosphere of hope and justice, the young hearts will get a chance to wander in healthy environment. 21st century is full of challenges and the youth all over have to rise to the occasion and decide who they want to be and what they want. The future belongs to us.


  
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  Management Education Movement : Dr. P.C. Shejwalkar, Professor Emeritus,   Commerce & Management, Dean, Faculty of Management, University of Pune
 

With the pace if new economic reforms, India has taken a positive march even in respect of Management Education movement and has been going through an unprecedented transition in a manner that would be useful to the younger generation to become highly competent to meet the challenges of competitive environment.

Pune city, in particular, has taken a lead in making an onward march in management education movement. Pune city can no longer be called a city of pensioners, nor just a city of education. It can aptly be described as a city of Management Education. The city boasts of as many as 70 Institutes, including both-those which are affiliated to Pune University and those which are autonomous, private institutes running not only full-time management courses, but also short duration, diversified courses in various functional areas of management. In additional there are several capsule programmes in various key areas of management organised by professional bodies such as Pune Divisional Productivity Council, Pune Management Association, Indian Society for Training & Development, Pune Chapter, National Institute of Materials Management, Mharatta Chamber of Commerce & Industries, Maharashtra Rajya Sahakari Sangh, College of Agricultural Banking of the Reserve Bank, National Institute of Banking Management, National Insurance Academy, Institute of Financial Sciences, Education, Research & Training, Shri C.A. Shejwalkar Institute of Business Management, so on and so forth. I myself feel privileged to nostalgically look back and find out how I was fortunate enough in taking initiative in starting Management Course in 1968 and later, in 1971, a Centre for Management Education in the premises of the Pune University. It would now look surprising that at that time, some members opposed the idea of starting MBA Centre and argued that Pune City was not a right place for starting such a course. Pune has started growing industrially right from 1960 and I had to make cogent argument pointing out the need for starting Management a success.

Management movement in India is necessary to combat the foreign invasion in the field of commerce, trade, industry, as well as technology. Happily India has taken a great leap forward in information technology and has also gone ahead in the development of service sector. Our management education will have to contribute towards meaningful employment or self employment to our younger generation, towards in what I call, Sunrise industries. Our management education will have to develop new market strategies to enable us to survive in a competitive environment. I strongly believe that our young managers will successfully accept the challenge.

Today's youngsters are living in an exciting period of transition from tradition to modernity.

Notwithstanding what is wrong in our political and social life, India has made a spectacular progress in development of Science and Technology. Thanks to the economic reforms, even the World Bank reports that we have been able to make enormous growth in the volume of activities. At the same time, on account of globalisation, we have entered a period of competitive environment which requires us to develop our potential for capturing new markets and retaining old markets and for improving our overall productivity. This requires very competent professional young managers having atleast a nodding acquaintance with functional areas of Management.

EMERGING TRENDS

Most futurologists predict that the technological change sweeping the world - weather in the field of computers, electronics, telecommunications, plastics or biotechnology - would have a pronounced impact on the emerging society. The growth that is seen in service industries and the way they are overtaking manufacturing industries in the post - industrial world are a pointer to the changes that are bound to take place in our society also.

There would be a major change in the quality and composition of the labour force, with considerable shift towards "knowledge-workers" as opposed to blue-collar workers. Life styles and the quality of life would also under go major changes for a large percentage of our population.

The second change that one could expect, is the increasing liberatlisation in the industrial and fiscal policies within the country. This would result in the private sector moving on to a position of parity with the public sector and providing competition to it, resulting in increased efficiency and better quality products. The increased liberatlisation is expected to provide a boost to industrial activity itself. If the expected tempo of liberalisation is maintained, one could even expected a 12 - 12.5 % annual growth in industrial production.

Thirdly, the increased power and managerial capabilities of Indian industries would make us as least equal to the second level of game players in the international field with reasonably good competitive capabilities.

This indicates globalisation of economies, which would be reflected in freer movements of capital, technology, professional manpower and products.

The multi-national corporations, which are already in India or the ones which would move to India, would increasingly be convinced of the competence of our technical and managerial manpower.

Fourthly, the increasing concern for efficiency, accountability and better performance on the part of all public institutions and industries would have its impact on the performance of public sector enterprises, public systems and even on our large cities and municipal corporations.

The fifth major development is the increasing share of international trade in the GNP of our country. As the growth and success of a nation depends considerably on its performance in the international markets, this phenomenon will become true in our case too. This naturally, will can for competitive and decisive performance in international markets. Demanding a rise in our share of international trade from the present level of -0.5% to something like to 2% by about the year 2004. Such a quantum jump would require exports to reach a level of Rs. 2,00,000/- crores as against to the present figure of only Rs. 30,000/- crores a year. This is a logical and natural development which must be vigorously pursued. With the kind of highly educated and professional manpower that we have, supported by the thousands of trained technicians that we produce every year, we should be able to move into international markets with greater confidence, ease and acceptability.

INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION

If management education has become big business today, the so-called international collaboration is one of the major element of that business. There are all kinds of institutions claiming all sorts of spurious foreign tie-ups with foreign institutions and trying to attract students taking advantage of the craze for everything foreign and sometimes even promising foreign degrees, though some of the foreign universities have excellent standards.

Historically, management education did start with foreign collaboration. The I.I.M. Ahmedabad and I.I.M. Calcutta and other nationally reputed institutes had received substantial inputs from foreign countries, especially from the USA. Management education in India can be said to have developed its own strong foundations, yet globalisation has become an irreversible phenomenon and no country can really stay aloof from it. There is thus need for continuous up gradation of curriculum and also reorienting the management faculty to meet the requirements of globalisation, to prepare global managers. The curricula in many institutions are still very old fashioned, concentrating on behavioral sciences, classical theories of business and quantitative techniques of the fifties and the sixties. They do not take into account the need for.

1. The knowledge of the new information technology and its tremendous impact on the style of our professional management.

2. The problem & issue facing transborder business global operations and all the organizational and managerial implications that follow.

3. The need for cross-cultural communication and the ability to work together in a multinational team.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

MBAs often get into functional areas like marketing, finance and personal etc. while searching for career opportunities. But they rarely enter into the niche areas of business and pioneering services to become successful entrepreneurs. Liberatlisation has brought in a host of multinationals which are infusing different work culture. As compared to engineers who traditionally took to entrepreneurship in the past, the MBAs are better equipped to become enterprisers at least in the services industries. Studies at IIMC have revealed that technocrat entrepreneurship are wedded to their products, with a false notion that their products will automatically sell in the market. However, many such projects failed because of incorrect pricing or poor launching of the products in the markets and lack of professional management training.

MAJOR SHORTCOMINGS

 
Management Education has become highly techniques - oriented. it is necessary to become behavior - oriented for effective utilization of human resource.
Management education has become job oriented, it should become entrepreneurial oriented.
There is inadequate attention to business ethics.
There is a specialization in functional areas, but these are on narrow lines.
There is inadequate attention to international dimensions of business activity.
There is inadequate linkage between business houses and management Institutes.
Further emphasis will have to be given on sect oral management and also on information technology.
Finally, students and teachers in management education must answer the following questions :
 
1. Why management institutes in India could not become truly international though India had become a recongised leader in management education with a vast network of institutions?
2. Why management schools lost their 'frontier spirit' and innovativeness?
3. Why a special council, viz., the All India Council for Management Education, could not be constituted similar to AICTE to monitor and promote management education?
4. Is management education, based on Western concepts, suitable to our ends?
5. Is the system inculcating the right kind of values?
6. Why is there still too much dependence on Western material for learning?
7. Why research in management is slow?
8. Why the management community is ignorant of the needs of the public sector?
9. Why management education is becoming more critical due to conspicuous- absence of practitioners?
10. Why management education in India is not keeping pace with the developments taking place outside the country?
11. Why is there mushrooming of management schools without adequate preparation and infrastructural facilities?
12. Why is there unhealthy trend towards commercialization, as had happened earlier in the case of engineering and medical education?
13. Why should this professional education be subsidized?